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Formal Logic

The study of formal logic is an essential foundation for every student—it permeates every discipline and subject of study. This is an ideal course for junior high and high school students who are now poised to acquire and verify truths on their own. Students use The Discovery of Deduction, a clear, incremental text that shows students how deductive logic is applied in various disciplines and in everyday life (from the adventures of Sherlock Holmes to scientific and ethical arguments).

The Discovery of Deduction course is designed for junior high and high school students who want to study the art of correct reasoning residing in the principles of formal, or deductive logic. This course on formal logic will take students through a study of the syllogism, which embodies deductive reasoning taking the form of a major premise, minor premise, and conclusion. Students will also study the traditional “square of opposition,” a teaching tool that shows various logical relations contained in various kinds of deductive arguments. Students will study with The Discovery of Deduction, a text which is not only clear and incremental, but shows students how deductive logic is applied in various disciplines and in everyday life (from the adventures of Sherlock Holmes to scientific and ethical arguments).

At the end of the second semester students will be reading Mere Christianity by C.S. Lewis. A few weeks of class time will be devoted to Socratic discussion centered around the text, and students will complete a final project evaluating some key aspect of this important work.

This is an ideal course for students wanting to know how reason works and who will enjoy thinking about thinking! Logic will be esteemed by students as they grow to see how logic is needed and used in every discipline and subject of study.

For a closer look at the main text used in this course, please follow this link and click “Look Inside”: The Discovery of Deduction.

Placement: Please read about our new process above.

Students must complete an introductory course in informal logic prior to this course. Scholé Academy’s Informal Logic course or the completion of the The Art of Argument text provides sufficient experience for this purpose. It is also recommended that students successfully complete pre-algebra prior to taking this course.

When determining whether this course is a good fit for your student, please consider that in addition to readiness for the course content, students should be developmentally prepared to engage in an 8th- to 10th-grade corporate learning environment as well as the online classroom dynamic. Please see the course syllabus (below) for a detailed description of student expectations for this course.

High School Credit: This course is the equivalent of one high school credit in logic or mathematics. 

The courses will be substantially similar; so feel free to review either syllabus for reasonably accurate view of how a class will be conducted.  

At Scholé Academy, we have carefully considered how we should engage our contemporary culture as those who believe that Christ is the Truth (John 14:6), and that all truth has its source in him. We think it is important to provide our upper school students (in grades 7-12) with tools and opportunities for critically examining various cultural trends, issues and mores through the lens of orthodox, Christian beliefs. Being confident in the truth revealed to us in creation, the Scriptures, and the tradition of the church, we are not afraid to follow the truth and its implications nor to address error and falsehood. … Read more about our Faith & Culture.

“The materials are amazing. This class has been the highlight of my daughter’s high school year.” —Christine McVeary, Formal Logic Parent

 

Syllabus

Section 1

Section 2

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Sections 3

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Sections 5 & 6

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For each skill instructors have determined whether it is a prerequisite skill or a skill to be developed throughout the course. For lower school, instructors indicate where parent support is expected.

  • With Parent Support: Skills that most lower school students will need help with.
  • Developing: Skills that the instructor will help develop and emphasize throughout the year.
  • Mastered: Prerequisite skills that the instructor is expecting students to possess.

Schoology

  • Developing
    • Be responsible for reviewing teacher feedback, suggestions and comments about student work and employing that feedback as necessary.
    • Be able to manage Schoology assignments and submissions (view assignments, check for teacher messages, submit homework as pdf file, submit revisions if necessary, set Schoology notifications for the class, view class notifications when posted, etc.).
    • Be able to respectfully and wisely engage with other students and the instructor on Schoology discussion boards.
    • Be able to respectfully, wisely and formally engage with instructor through private Schoology messaging.
  • Mastered
    • Be able to set notifications settings to alert the student of class announcements, homework assignments, due dates, instructor comments made on assignments, instructor comments made on individual student submissions, instructor comments made on graded items, etc.
    • Be able to review notifications ongoing throughout the year; notifications which include: class announcements, homework assignments, due dates, instructor comments made on assignments, instructor comments made on individual student submissions, instructor comments made on graded items, etc.

Writing

  • Developing
    • Be able to build and use alphanumeric outlines as part of the writing process.
    • Be able to self-edit written submissions for grammar and spelling mistakes.
    • Be able to employ the feedback of the instructor into future edits and submissions of the assignment.
    • Be able to build well organized paragraphs which employ (among other skills) topic sentences, transition sentences, clear linear thinking throughout the essay.
    • Be able to build a logical, well-reasoned argument through a written essay providing sound reasoning (i.e. true premises, valid arguments, sound conclusions).
    • Be able to request a family or peer to edit submissions, but understands these requests should be for the purposes of raising important questions for the student to consider and suggesting minor edits. The student understands that family or peer editors should not be reworking of sentences, redefining terms, building new concepts, building arguments or writing passages for the student.
  • Mastered
    • Be able to hand-write answers in complete sentences.
    • Be able to write sentences with basic sentence syntax (i.e. capitalization of first word in a sentence, punctuation at the end of each sentence, space between sentences, capitalization of proper nouns, each sentence having a subject and predicate, etc.).
    • Be able to spell at grade level and employ course vocabulary cumulatively throughout the course.

Reading

  • Developing
    • Be able to read material independently and identify questions which require clarification or further explanation from the instructor.
    • Be able to mark, underline or highlight important words, definitions or concepts within a text being read both while reading independently and reading corporately as a class.
    • Be able to identify key terms in a passage, and follow the author’s argument.
    • Be able to listen to the author’s argument and understand it even if the student disagrees with the conclusion reached or reasons given.
  • Mastered
    • Be able to read material independently and identify the information which might be relevant to course discussions and objectives (even if the student doesn’t fully understand all of what’s being read).

Typing

  • Developing
    • Be able to employ basic MLA formatting skills (i.e. 1-inch margins, double spacing, heading on paper).
    • Be able to employ MLA citations for (for quoted material and referenced material) through the use of footnotes or endnotes, bibliography, work-cited page. Student should have a concept of what plagiarism is and know how to avoid it.
    • Be able to type paragraph essays (short essays, and 5 or more page essays).
  • Mastered
    • Be able to type short answers in complete sentences.

In-Class

  • Developing
    • Follow class discussions and seminar conversations to record notes without the instructor identifying specifics.
    • Be prepared to generate thoughtful questions to enhance the class discussion, to identify areas needing clarification, and to make valuable connections with other course content.
    • Be prepared to thoughtfully answer questions when called on in a group setting, during class.
    • Follow along with instructor-led note-taking and record notes during class.
    • Follow along with instructor-led workbook completion and record answers during class.
  • Mastered
    • Be prepared to volunteer thoughtful comments, answers and ideas in a group setting, during class.

Study

  • Developing
    • Understand the difference between assignments given by an instructor and the necessary and independently initiated need for private study of material.
    • Be able to schedule and manage multiple projects from multiple instructors and courses.
    • Be able to schedule time outside of class to complete independent review of materials.
    • Be able to determine the best places and ways to study at home (i.e. quiet, undistracted, utilizing various methods of review (auditory, written, visual, practice tests, flashcards, etc.).
  • Mastered
    • Be responsible to study at home for quizzes, tests and other assessments.

Math Skills

  • Developing
    • Be able to deductively apply content and previously learned mathematics skills and processes to the understanding of newly introduced content.

DD Image*Required Texts:

OPTIONAL COURSE TEXTS:

  • Additionally, some course content will utilize the text, Socratic Logic by Peter Kreeft, Ph.D.
  • Papers and essays will be submitted using basic MLA formatting guides. The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers — 7th Edition may be a helpful resource.

 

*Required texts are not included in the purchase of the course.

Andy Newman calls western Nebraska home, that borderland where Midwest and West shake hands. There he has taught literature, composition, history, journalism, and the humanities for twenty years at the high school and college levels. His mind and heart have longed been pulled toward classical Christian education. And he is as excited as he is thankful to now be fully in its orbit and looks forward to working with students in the humanities, rhetoric, and logic.

His education is varied, having earned master’s degrees in history and English from the University of Wyoming and the University of Nebraska at Omaha, respectively. Most recently, he earned a MTh in Applied Orthodox Theology from the Antiochian House of Studies and a MA in Biblical Theology from John Paul the Great Catholic University and, in Fall of 2021, completed his coursework for the PhD in Humanities from Faulkner University and has moved onto the dissertation. A tonsured Reader, he is involved in parish ministry at Assumption Orthodox Christian Church, in Bayard, Nebraska, and is in the process to be ordained to the priesthood. a.newman.scholeacademy@gmail.com

Jimmy Schambach holds a Master of Divinity from Regent University, and a BA in theology and philosophy from Evangel University. Currently, he works as the executive director of a faith-based nonprofit organization called M28 Ministry, which operates out of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. In his past, Jimmy worked as a youth and young adult pastor at a large church in Indianapolis, Indiana. Since his time in college, Jimmy has grown in his love for philosophy, logic, and theology. He has taught in many settings over the years and enjoys his classes at Scholé Academy. Jimmy and his wife, Tristin, live in Camp Hill, Pennsylvania, where they have a young daughter named Aviana and a dog named Panda. jschambach.scholeacademy@gmail.com

 

 

Peter Belfry has a range of teaching and tutoring experience in a variety of subjects and age levels from kindergarten through to adult education at the college level and has taught at several classical, Christian and public schools. Currently, he serves as a professor of computer science with Canadore College, teaching courses on Operating Systems and programming languages such as Windows, Linux, HTML, C++ and Visual Basic. Peter holds an Honors BA from Trent University in History as well as a BA in Education, specializing in History and Computer Science. He holds an MA from Knox Theological Seminary in Classical and Christian studies, which provides him a background for teaching from a classical perspective. For his MA program, he read many of the Great Books as well as studied Scripture and church history. Peter has completed a week-long teacher training with the Association of Classical Christian Schools and Rockbridge Academy. His favourite piece of classical literature is Dante’s The Divine Comedy. In addition to teaching, Peter also has experience serving in a pastoral role and enjoys volunteering to serve in his local church and community. He helps in evangelistic outreach as well as teaching lessons from the Bible. Peter has experience and training as an English as a Second Language instructor as well. He has experience teaching both online and in person. He believes in Scholé’s approach in seeking “restful learning” and believes that education should be life-giving and freeing for the soul as it should acknowledge the Lord Jesus as the source of all that is true, good and beautiful. Peter lives in the North Bay, Ontario area with his wife and twin boys. pbelfry.scholeacademy@gmail.com

Phaedra Shaltanis is a seasoned classical educator with 20 years of experience teaching in the classical tradition. Her experience includes home-educating her 4 children, teaching in private schools, creating a classical curriculum for young learners, serving as a leader in various programs, and mentoring parents and teachers in classical education. Phaedra cherishes conversations built on God’s truth and strives to engage others through discourse, particularly in the areas of literature and history. She hopes to encourage her students toward a stronger ardor for language as they seek after God and treasure their membership in Christ’s kingdom. pshaltanis.scholeacademy@gmail.com

Red checkmarkComputer: You will need a stable, reliable computer, running with a processor with a speed of 1 GHz or better on one of the following operating systems: Mac OS X with Mac OS 10.7 or later; Windows 8, 7, Vista (with SP1 or later), or XP (with SP3 or later). We do not recommend using an iPad or other tablet for joining classes. An inexpensive laptop or netbook would be much better solutions, as they enable you to plug an Ethernet cable directly into your computer. Please note that Chromebooks are allowed but not preferred, as they do not support certain features of the Zoom video conference software such as breakout sessions and annotation, which may be used by our teachers for class activities.

Red checkmarkHigh-Speed Internet Connection: You will also need access to high-speed Internet, preferably accessible via Ethernet cable right into your computer. Using Wi-Fi may work, but will not guarantee you the optimal use of your bandwidth. The faster your Internet, the better. We recommend using a connection with a download/upload speed of 5/1 Mbps or better. You can test your Internet connection here.

Red checkmarkWebcam: You may use an external webcam or one that is built in to the computer. Webcam Recommendations: Good (PC only) | Best (Mac and PC)

Red checkmarkHeadset: We recommend using a headset rather than a built-in microphone and speakers. Using a headset reduces the level of background noise heard by the entire class. Headset Recommendations: USB | 3.5mm

Red checkmarkZoom: We use a web conferencing software called Zoom for our classes, which enables students and teachers to gather from around the globe face to face in real time. Zoom is free to download and easy to use. unnamed-e1455142229376 To download Zoom:

  1. Visit zoom.us/download.
  2. Click to download the first option listed, Zoom Client for Meetings.
  3. Open and run the installer on your computer.
  4. In August, students will be provided with instructions and a link for joining their particular class.

 

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First, read the available course descriptions, noting prerequisites, target grades, and course objectives. If you think your student is prepared for the course, go ahead and register. After registration, a placement assessment may be provided to students, depending on the course and the student’s previous enrollment with Scholé Academy. Registration is finalized when the student’s placement assessment has been returned by the course instructor with placement confirmation.

 

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Make sure they don’t conflict with other activities in your schedule or other courses you are purchasing. Our system will not catch double-bookings!

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Our Assistant to the Principal will be in touch with you after your enrollment to help you with next steps, including any placement evaluations that may be required for your course selections.

This registration will be finalized when the student’s placement assessment has been returned by the course instructor with placement confirmation.

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