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Discovery of Deduction: Formal Logic

The**_ Discovery of Deduction_** course is designed for junior high and high school students who want to study the art of correct reasoning residing in the principles of formal, or deductive logic. This course on formal logic will take students through a study of the syllogism, which embodies deductive reasoning taking the form of a major premise, minor premise, and conclusion. Students will also study the traditional “square of opposition,” a teaching tool that shows various logical relations contained in various kinds of deductive arguments.

Students will study with The Discovery of Deduction, a clear and incremental text that demonstrates how deductive logic is applied in various disciplines and in everyday life (from the adventures of Sherlock Holmes to scientific and ethical arguments). At the end of the second semester students will read _Mere Christianity _as a way to implement their learned skills under the guidance of C.S. Lewis, a master logician. They will analyze the text, evaluate arguments, translate into categoric form, and engage in dialectic, which will culminate in a final essay or project.

This course is ideal for students who enjoy thinking about thinking and want to learn the art and science of reasoning.

Visit with instructor, Peter Belfry, about his upcoming section of Formal Logic.

Prerequisites for enrollment: This course is geared towards grades 7-12. Students should have completed a course in informal logic (the informal fallacies) such as The Art of Argument course provided by Scholé Academy. Students should have also successfully completed Pre-Algebra. Additionally, because this Discovery of Deduction course will require written essays (including the final project), students should have some experience in alphanumeric outlining, thesis-based essay writing, basic style and formatting requirements (MLA style preferred) and understanding how to avoid plagiarism.

Image of text book for Discovery of Deduction: Formal Logic

Required Materials:
Books and supplies are not included in the purchase of the course.

Optional Resources:

Andy Newman calls western Nebraska home, that borderland where Midwest and West shake hands. There he has taught literature, composition, history, journalism, and the humanities for twenty years at the high school and college levels. His mind and heart have longed been pulled toward classical Christian education. And he is as excited as he is thankful to now be fully in its orbit.
His education is varied, having earned master’s degrees in history and English from the University of Wyoming and the University of Nebraska at Omaha, respectively. Most recently, he earned a MTh in Applied Orthodox Theology from the Antiochian House of Studies and a MA in Biblical Theology from John Paul the Great Catholic University and, in Fall of 2021, completed his coursework for the PhD in Humanities from Faulkner University and has moved on to the dissertation.

Jimmy Schambach holds a Master of Divinity from Regent University, and a BA in theology and philosophy from Evangel University. Currently, he works as the executive director of a faith-based nonprofit organization called M28 Ministry, which operates out of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. In his past, Jimmy worked as a youth and young adult pastor at a large church in Indianapolis, Indiana. Since his time in college, Jimmy has grown in his love for philosophy, logic, and theology. He has taught in many settings over the years and enjoys his classes at Scholé Academy. Jimmy and his wife, Tristin, live in Camp Hill, Pennsylvania, where they have a young daughter named Aviana and a dog named Panda.

Peter Belfry has a range of teaching and tutoring experience in a variety of subjects and age levels from kindergarten through to adult education at the college level and has taught at several classical, Christian and public schools. He has enjoyed having the experience of teaching Programming and Logic classes to students, which ties well to his background in philosophy and computer science. In addition to serving as an instructor with Schole, Peter serves as a professor of Computer Science and Video Game Development with Canadore College, teaching courses on Operating Systems and programming languages such as Windows, Linux, HTML, CSS, C++, C#, and Visual Basic as well as Artificial Intelligence, Object Oriented Programming, Mathematics, Business and Workplace Skills. Peter holds an Honors BA from Trent University in History as well as a BA in Education, specializing in History and Computer Science. He holds an MA from Knox Theological Seminary in Classical and Christian studies, which provides him a background for teaching from a classical perspective. For his MA program, he read and reflected on many of the Great Books as well as studied Scripture and church history. Peter has completed a week-long teacher training with the Association of Classical Christian Schools and Rockbridge Academy. His favorite piece of classical literature is Dante’s The Divine Comedy.

In addition to teaching, Peter also has experience serving in a pastoral role and enjoys volunteering to serve in his local church and community. He helps in evangelistic outreach as well as teaching lessons from the Bible. Peter has experience and training as an English as a Second Language instructor as well. He has experience teaching both online and in person. He believes in Scholé’s approach in seeking “restful learning” and believes that education should be life-giving and freeing for the soul as it should acknowledge the Lord Jesus as the source of all that is true, good and beautiful. Peter lives in the North Bay, Ontario area with his wife and twin boys.

Peter provides tutoring services with Scholé Academy and teaches the following classes: The Art of Argument: An Introduction to the Informal Fallacies, Formal Logic: The Discovery of Deduction, The Logic of Computer Programming, and The Art of Computer Programming.

Phaedra Shaltanis, Chair of the Humanities Department, has taught in private and classical schools for over 25 years and has educated her four children in the classical tradition, which has been the monumental joy of her life. After college graduation, she began teaching high school Writing, Literature, Spanish, and Art in classical schools. Her involvement with Scholé Academy includes teaching American Literature, British Literature, Western History, Rhetoric I, Formal Logic and Well-Ordered Language Levels 1 and 2. She is enthused to serve as the Humanities department chair and appreciates guiding parents and teachers toward restful education. In her Dallas community, she currently directs a high school university-model program, trains and mentors teachers, conducts seminars on classical education, builds curriculum, supports parents, and provides fine art instruction at a classical high school. She and her husband hope to support classical education as avenues present themselves.

Quarter 1

  1. Introduction to Formal Logic
  2. A Brief History of Logic
  3. Formal Logic and the Three Acts of the Mind
  4. Propositions and Their Relationship

Quarter 2

  1. Translating Propositions into Categorical Form
  2. Relationships of Opposition
  3. Relationships of Equivalences
  4. Student Evaluations

Quarter 3

  1. Categorical Syllogisms
  2. The Syllogism Introduced
  3. Determining the Validity of Syllogisms
  4. Student Evaluations

Quarter 4

  1. Terms and Definitions
  2. Definitions and Disagreements (students should begin reading _Mere Christianity) _
  3. Logical Analysis of Mere Christianity
  4. Final Project

Red checkmarkComputer: You will need a stable, reliable computer, running with a processor with a speed of 1 GHz or better on one of the following operating systems: Mac OS X with Mac OS 10.7 or later; Windows 8, 7, Vista (with SP1 or later), or XP (with SP3 or later). We do not recommend using an iPad or other tablet for joining classes. An inexpensive laptop or netbook would be much better solutions, as they enable you to plug an Ethernet cable directly into your computer. Please note that Chromebooks are allowed but not preferred, as they do not support certain features of the Zoom video conference software such as breakout sessions and annotation, which may be used by our teachers for class activities.

Red checkmarkHigh-Speed Internet Connection: You will also need access to high-speed Internet, preferably accessible via Ethernet cable right into your computer. Using Wi-Fi may work, but will not guarantee you the optimal use of your bandwidth. The faster your Internet, the better. We recommend using a connection with a download/upload speed of 5/1 Mbps or better. You can test your Internet connection here.

Red checkmarkWebcam: You may use an external webcam or one that is built in to the computer. Webcam Recommendations: Good (PC only) | Best (Mac and PC)

Red checkmarkHeadset: We recommend using a headset rather than a built-in microphone and speakers. Using a headset reduces the level of background noise heard by the entire class. Headset Recommendations: USB | 3.5mm

Red checkmarkZoom: We use a web conferencing software called Zoom for our classes, which enables students and teachers to gather from around the globe face to face in real time. Zoom is free to download and easy to use. unnamed-e1455142229376 To download Zoom:

  1. Visit
  2. Click to download the first option listed, Zoom Client for Meetings.
  3. Open and run the installer on your computer.
  4. In August, students will be provided with instructions and a link for joining their particular class.

Red checkmarkScanner: In this class, students frequently submit homework assignments by scanning pages from their workbooks. Students and/or their parents should have easy access to a scanner and the ability to use it.


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